Chronically Aggressive Individuals
Easily frustrated, limited or poor impulse control
Frequently express anger or hostility
Resents authority, defiant with supervisors.
May express hostility through “passive-aggressive” behaviour
Believes violence and/or aggression are legitimate responses to various interpersonal problems in life (i.e., if someone provokes you, you fight back)
Although they might never admit it, pleasure or reinforcement is derived from the expression of anger (i.e., it feels good to blow someone off; it makes you feel alive; it gives you a sense of power)
Often display the characteristics of a “stimulus seeker” – they engage in bold, fearless, or reckless behaviour and are prone towards substance abuse
Most typically, violence occurs in a situational context: an offence, fight, or disagreement
Sometimes just get carried away in a particular situation (domestic violence, child battering)
Less likely to engage in acts of unexpected “explosive” violence
The Over-Controlled Hostility Type
Rarely display or express anger – they don’t cuss or yell, and may be offended by such
Emotionally rigid and inflexible: appear to be polite, serious, and sober, rarely “loose” or jocular
Cognitively rigid and inflexible: very strict about interpreting rules; usually go for the letter, rather than the spirit of the law
Morally righteous and upstanding: see themselves as “good people”
Often judgmental: see others as “not such good people”
Non-assertive or passive; their passivity causes others to take advantage of them
Anger builds up like in a pressure cooker, before they explode
After the violence, people say that they never expected it, “he always seemed like such a nice guy; he was always so quiet”
The Hurt and Resentful
Feel that people walk on them and that they are never treated fairly
When they are passed over, there is always someone else to blame
Things are easier for everyone else: other people get more and have more advantages.
They do not accept criticism well
In response to reprimands, they develop grudges, which are sometimes deeply held
They are often whiners and complainers, as a matter of attitude
They wallow in their victimization and are psychologically impotent
Violence occurs because they hold grudges and are “impotent” to deal with their anger in other ways
Aggression occurs in response to a single, massive assault on their identity
Something happens that is potently offensive, absolutely intolerable, and which strips them of all sense of personal power
The essence of their existence (or their manhood) will be destroyed if they do not respond
Violence is predictable & preventable
Jealous Type: Delusionally believes their lover is unfaithful
Persecuted Type: Delusionally believes that people are out to get him
Typically engage in behaviours which make their paranoid beliefs come true
Delusions may reach the point at which the person is grossly out of contact with reality (may be insane).
Rare: does not understand the nature and quality of their actions.
More typical: fundamental misperceptions of reality, incapable of rational behaviour, delusional beliefs deprive them of the ability to know that their behaviour is wrong, beliefs and perceptions are incongruent with reality.
Twisted, psychotic beliefs about what is right, what is wrong, and what is necessary.
The Just Plain Bad & Angry
A combination of most of the above (except for insane): angry, hostile, jealous, resentful, impotent, and disturbed individuals, who are socially isolated, socially inadequate, and who feel worthless
May be seeking attention
May be seeking revenge